Jumat, 08 Juli 2011

Materi Kuliah Morphology & Syntax

June 12, 2010 at 7:23 am | Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment
Koesnandar, 0923385P1, STKIP PGRI SIDOARJO
Language is a system for the communication of meaning through sounds.
Linguistic is the scientific study of language.
Language as system consist of three subsystem: Semantic, Sysnantic, Phonological
Language is a system of symbols. Why?
Each language has different pronunciation.
e.g: Could you tell me where the station is?
/kud yuw tel miy hwer ……./
Phonology is the study the smallest units of speech sounds that make a difference in meaning.
Morphology is the study of meaningful form or the smallest meaningful units of language.
There are two basic divisions in morphology :
(1) lexical or derivational morphology; studies word formation which produces new words such as nation — national.
(2) inflectional morphology; studies word formation related to grammatical affixes: prular, past tense and possession.
A word is a unit which is a constituent at the phrase level and above.
A morphene is the smallest unit of language that has meaning. For example Cats has to morphemes- cat (singular) and cats (plural). Uneventful has three morphemes. event, eventful, and uneventful. Each morpheme changes the meaning of the word.
Morphemes are defined as the smallest meaningful elements in a language.
There are two types of morpheme. They are free morpheme and bound morpheme.
Free morpheme is the one that can stand alone such as: cat, dog, horse, car, bike, bus etc.
Bound morpheme is the one that cannot stand alone such as in affixation namely prefix, infix and suffix. Prefixes occur before the base, e.g. (un)tidy, pre(school), (dis)like. Suffixes occur in the middle of the base, e.g. kind(ness), angri(ly), judge(ment), teach(er).
Inflection is modification of words in accordance with their forms.
English verbs consists of five forms, namely: infinitive (see), the third singular present (sees), past form (saw), past participle (seen) and gerund or present participle (seeing).
eg.: I love a peaceful life. “love” is a verb.
Love is blue. “love” is a noun.
Do you like love potion? “love” is an adjective.
Analysis of inflections.
We must determine (1) the patterns of selection, (2) the arrangement of inflected elements and (3) any modifications involved.
Selection means parts of speech. These are classified by word patterns of inflection.
e.g: The verb “live” (regular) and “give” (irregular).
“live” is inflected by means of suffix: lives [z], lived [d], living [iŋ] while “give” is inflected by means of patterns underlying forms, namely irregular verbs. give, gives, gave, given, giving.
Derivation is the process of adding derivational morphemes, which create a new word from existing words, sometimes by simply changing grammatical category (for example, changing a noun to a verb).
Paradigmatic
A dissimilar thing that can be exchanged for the thing of which the value is to be determined
Syntagmatic
Similar things that can be compared with the thing of which the value is to be determined
PARADIGMATIC AND SYNTAGMATIC. Contrasting terms in (structural) LINGUISTICS. Every item of language has a paradigmatic relationship with every other item which can be substituted for it (such as cat with dog), and a syntagmatic relationship with items which occur within the same construction (for example, in The cat sat on the mat, cat with the and sat on the mat). The relationships are like axes, as shown in the accompanying diagram.
syntagmatic
The cat sat on the mat.
paradigmatic His dog slept under that table.
Our parrot perched in its cage.
Paradigmatic contrasts at the level of sounds allow one to identify the phonemes (minimal distinctive sound units) of a language: for example, bat, fat, mat contrast with one another on the basis of a single sound, as do bat, bet, bit, and bat, bap, ban. Stylistically, rhyme is due to the paradigmatic substitution of sounds at the beginning of syllables or words, as in: ‘Tyger! Tyger! burning bright / In the forests of the night.’
On the lexical level, paradigmatic contrasts indicate which words are likely to belong to the same word class (part of speech): cat, dog, parrot in the diagram are all nouns, sat, slept, perched are all verbs. Syntagmatic relations between words enable one to build up a picture of co-occurrence restrictions within SYNTAX, for example, the verbs hit, kick have to be followed by a noun (Paul hit the wall, not *Paul hit), but sleep, doze do not normally do so (Peter slept, not *Peter slept the bed). On the semantic level, paradigmatic substitutions allow items from a semantic set to be grouped together, for example Angela came on Tuesday (Wednesday, Thursday, etc.), while syntagmatic associations indicate compatible combinations: rotten apple, the duck quacked, rather than *curdled apple, *the duck squeaked.
PARTS OF SPEECH: WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF WORDS?
a. Verb : swim : swims, swam, swum, swimming
b. Noun : chair : chairman, head : headmaster; cloud : cloudy
c. Pronoun : I : me/my/mine; we : our/ours/us
d. Adjective : happy : happily/happiness/happier/happiest
d. Adverb
e. Preposition
f. Conjunction
g. Interjection
Syntax: The study of the rules governing the way words are combined to form sentences in a language.
Syntactics: Science which studies the elements of sentence structure and interrelationshios with the rules governing the arrangement of sentences in sequences.
Affixation is the process of attaching an inflection or, more generally, a bound morpheme to a word. This can occur at the beginning or end and occasionally in the middle of a word form.
Affixes are classified into three types:
(1) Prefixes: Those which are added to the beginning of root or stem such as “unhappy”
(2) Infixes: Those which occur within a root/stem. They are not commonly found in European languages.
(3) Suffixes: Those which follow a root/stem such as “happiness”.
4 level of linguistic analysis:
• Sound level
• Morphological level
• Syntactic level
• Semantic level
The morphological level of analysis is concerned with meaningful units. These units are called morphemes. It is defined as the smallest meaningful units of grammatical description, since they cannot by analyzed any further at this level. Morphology studies the internal structure of words, that is the ways in which morphemes function as constituents of word structure. For example, the word unconditionally may be said to consist of four morphemes: un – condition – al – ly. Condition is a free morpheme, since it can occur on its own. The other three morphemes are bound, since they must always co-occur with free morphemes. English words consist of one or more free morphemes (book, bookcase, bookshop, bookworm) or of combination of free and bound morphemes (kindness, unkind, kindly, unkindly).
Having established the structure of words at the morphological level, we can go on to examine how words can be put together to form larger grammatical units. Words combine to form larger units called phrases, which, in turn to combine to form sentences. This is the business of syntax to establish the set of rules that specify which combinations of words constitute grammatical strings and which do not.
In short, morpheme is the minimal unit of grammatical description in the sense that it cannot be segmented any further at the grammatical level of analysis. While Syntax is a part of linguistic, this studies rearrangement and interrelationship of word, phrases, clauses, and sentences. In other words, it is the study of how combine words become a larger unit.
Words : The smallest units or the smallest free form.
A group of phoneme/letter that has meaning, e.g. car, book, pen
Phoneme : The smallest meaningful unit, e.g. book /bUk/ 3 phoneme
Phrase : Group of words that doesn’t has S and P but has meaning.
A group of word that has meaning
Clause : Consist of S and V but can not stand alone because it is part of sentence
and has meaning, e.g. what she knows
Sentence : The largest grammatical unit consisting phrase, clause, sentence that used
to express a statement, question and comment.
Consist of S and V, can stand alone and has meaning and sometimes
consist more than one clause, e.g. I wrote a letter yesterday
There are five signals of syntactic structure:
1. word-order—the linear of time sequence in which word appear in an utterance, or the positions of words relative to each other in time.
2. prosody—musical pattern of stress, pitch and juncture in which the words an utterance are spoken, or combination or patterns of pitch, stress and juncture.
3. function word—words with little or no lexical meaning which are used in combining other words into larger structures.
Words largely divide of lexical meaning that used to indicate various functional relationship among the lexical words of an utterance (doesn’t have meaning in grammatical but in lexical), e.g. Does she go there?
There are nine types of function word:
• noun determiner; all, twice, one, third, a, an, this, that, these, those, etc.
• auxiliaries; verb, is, am, are, has, have, do, does, did, will
• qualifiers/ compare; fairly, merely, very, pretty, quite, etc.
• preposition; in, on, at, of, over, etc
• conjunction/ coordinator; and, but, nor…or, not only…but also, etc
• interrogator; who, which, what, etc
• includes; when, like, that, whatever, etc
• sentence linkers; consequently, accordingly, however, even though, as a result
• miscellaneous/ interjection
There are two kinds of meaning:
a) lexical meaning : the meaning of morphemes and words considered in isolation (dictionary meaning).
b) Grammatical/structural meaning: the meaning of the way words are combined in larger structures (sentence)
* the word “am” does not has meaning if stand alone, but has meaning if we combine with other words or we put in a sentence.
e.g. I am being interviewed
4. inflection—suffixes, always final, which adapt words to fit varying of structural positions without changing their lexical meaning or part of speech.
Morphemic changes without changing the lexical meaning, e.g. – ed, plural (s/es)
• work — worked (change in the form of word to show a past tense)
• book — books ( to show a plural)
5. derivational contrast—derivational prefixes and suffixes which change words from one part of speech to another. In short, addition of the prefixes or suffixes that change the world class.
e.g. manage—management—manager
lead—leader—leadership
test—pre-test
morphophoneme – (linguistics) the phonemes (or strings of phonemes) that constitute the various allomorphs of a morpheme.
Eg. imperfect = in + perfect
Irregular = in + regular
linguistics – the scientific study of language
allomorph – a variant phonological representation of a morpheme; “the final sounds of `bets’ and `beds’ and `horses’ and `oxen’ are allomorphs of the English plural morpheme”
Assimilation is a common phonological process by which the phonetics of a speech segment becomes more like that of another segment in a word (or at a word boundary). A common example of assimilation would be “don’t be silly” where the /n/ and /t/ in “don’t” are assimilated to /m/ and /p/ by the following /b/, where said naturally in many accents and discourse styles (“dombe silly”).
Progressive assimilation; changes with reference to a preceding segment are traditionally.
Regresive assimilation; if a sound changes with reference to a following segment.
Dissimilation; opposite of assimilation; is the change of one or more sounds to be articulated like another sound or is a phenomenom whereby similar consonant or vowel sound in a word become less similar.
e.g. turtle tur-tur
Branches of phonetic study:
1. Articulation phonetics: The study of the way speech sounds are made by vocal organ.
2. Acoustic phonetics: The study of speech sounds related to physical properties as transmitted between mouth and ear.
3. Auditory phonetics: The study of speech sounds based on the perceptual response of auditory nerve and brain: using physical apparatus such as devices for measuring airflow or for analyzing sound waves.
Stress: The use of significant intensity in speech.
e.g: naturally (naetserlly)
nat surely will come (naet serliy el kem)
Pitch: Intonation which gives contribution to meaning varieties of the sentence.
Timing: Juncture (the type of connection or pause we get between syllables or words)
Definition of sentence:
A sentence is sequence of selected syntactic items combined into a unit in accordance with certain patterns of arrangement, modification, and intonation in any given language.
A sentence is any string of morphemes ending with a final intonation pattern.
To provide the means for analyzing sentences or any other syntactic entities, two terms are used: construction and constituent. A construction is any complete group of words or morphemes. A constituent is a morphemes, a combination of morphemes, or a construction that is a component of a construction.
Basic elements of the sentence.
Subject + Predicate.
Subject:
The subject of a sentence is the person, place, thing, or idea that is doing or being something. You can find the subject of a sentence if you can find the verb. Ask the question, "Who or what ‘verbs’ or ‘verbed’?" and the answer to that question is the subject.
Predicate:
A predicate is the completer of a sentence. The subject names the "do-er" or "be-er“ of the sentence; the predicate does the rest of the work. A simple predicate consists of only a verb, verb string, or compound verb:
- The glacier melted.
- The glacier has been melting.
- The glacier melted, broke apart, and slipped into the sea.
Coordination (conjoining) is one of the basic syntactic devices from which parallel entities are arrangeed side by side.
e.g: John takes cream. John takes sugar.
The two sentences above can be coordinated into : John takes cream and sugar.
Subordination (embedding) is combining two sentences into one sentence by using English relatives and subordinating conjuction.
e.g: John, who likes sugar.
Endocentric construction is one in which the primary constituent(s) are comparable to the complete construction.
e.g: Good old John. John and Mary
Exocentric construction is one in which the primary constituent(s) do not function like the complete construction.
e.g: in the house
Substitution (pro-form), stand for the central entities of basic patterns.
As substitutes for nouns: John likes cream. He likes cream. He likes it.
Substitutes may also be used for verbs: He likes coffee and she does too.
Modals are also widely used as substitutes: He’ll take coffee and so will she.
Entities used as substitutes generally fall into the set of items known as function words. These convey relationships among the content words, such as nouns and verbs, in a language. Examples of function words are auxiliaries, conjunctions, determiners, interjections, postpositions, prepositions and relatives.
Concord, or congruence, is the agreement in form of one word with an other. For example, ‘this’ must be modified to ‘these’ before plurals, as in ‘this tie’, ‘these ties’.
Government is the determination of one from by another. For example, ‘her’ rather than ‘she’ is required in ‘He saw her’ and ‘to her’.
The two basic favorite sentence types of English, verb sentence and BE sentence.
Verb sentence:
- They came. N1 V
- They became friends. N1 V N(1)
- They saw her. N1 V N2
- They gave her candy. N1 V N2 N3
- They elected her mayor. N1 V N2 N(2)
BE sentence:
- It is cold. N BE Adj
- It is here. N BE Adv
- It is Jack. N BE N
Intransitive verbs that do not require a following noun or adjective.
Transitive verbs are subdivided here into two large groups, one of which requires only an object, the other an object plus a noun or a pronoun and those that do. Some grammars call verbs like ‘become’ and ‘seem’ linking verbs.
Overt selection classes, the subject performs an action affecting the object, whereas in ‘I saw her’, there is no such effect.
Covert selection classes, the relationship expressed by verbs like ‘stop’ is hidden in ‘They stopped the car’, with the former object as subject: ‘The car stopped’.
Subclasses of English function words are often specified according to gross sets: those used with verbs as auxiliaries and those used nouns as determiners and prepostions.
e.g: ‘His car broke down’ and ‘His broke down’.
Subclasses of English noun.
The use of determiners, in turn, permits subclassification of nouns. Proper nouns may be distinguished from common nouns by the impossibility of placing determiners before proper nouns. For example, ‘Jack’ is a proper noun in ‘Jack dealt the cards’ but not in ‘He dealt a jack to each of the players’.
Some eggs –> count nouns
Some sugar –> mass nouns
They moved last week –> ‘move’ is intranstive verb
They moved the last house on the block –> ‘move’ is transitive
Expansion of the verb phrase:
They may give her candy.
They have given her candy.
They are giving her candy.
They may have given her candy.
They may be giving her candy.
They have been giving her candy.
They may have been giving her candy.
Expansion of the noun phrase:
their old neighbors
their fine old neighbors
their fine old retired neighbors
their many fine old retired neighbors
all their fine old retired neighbors
Alterations of simple sentences:
1. Question
- with change of intonation, for example, ‘He came?’
- with wh-words, for example, ‘Who came?’
- with auxiliaries or do, for example, ‘May he come?’ or ‘Did he come?’
2. Negative
They didn’t come.
3. Emphatics
They came
4. Requests
Will you come?
5. Passives
She was seen by him
Compound sentences; the clauses so modified are referred to as coordinate and subordinate clauses, and the resulting sentences.
Example: They came and saw her.

Materi 3 - Syntax, Semantic & Grammar

Bahasa pemrograman merupakan notasi formal dan mempunyai 2 komponen utama
Syntax dan Semantic
Syntax
kumpulan aturan formal yang menspesifikasikan komposisi suatu program yang terdiri dari huruf.,angka & karakter yang lain.
Design Bahasa Pemrogramann
  • Abstraction => kemampuan untuk mengkonstruksi suatu pola yang berulang-ulang. Misalnya: subprosedure.

  • Simplycity => berarti kesederhanaan. Semakin sedikit konsep untuk dapat dimengerti,berarti semakin baik.

  • Regularity =>keteraturan. Semakin sedikit melanggar aturan berarti semakin baik.

  • Konsistensi => ketetapan suatu alur atau bentuk bahasa

  • Translation => penerjemah yang cepat & menghasilkan kode tujuan yang efisien.

Materi 3 - SYNTAX

Readability (mudah dibaca)
Writeability (mudah untuk ditulis)
Verifiability (verifikasi program (konsep kebenaran)).
Kemudahan Translasi atau Mudah bagi manusia, bagi bahasa yang sulit di translasi.
Pengurangan Ambiguitas atau memilki dua arti atau bahkan lebih.
Misalnya: A(i) (array atau pemanggilan fungsi).
Ciri Syntax
  • Kumpulan aturan yang mendefinisikan suatu bentuk bahasa
  • Syntax mendefinisikan bagaimana suatu kalimat dibentuk sebagai barisan/urutan dari pemilihan suatu kata dasar
  • Kata dikonstruksikan dengan karakter-karakter alfabet
  • Contoh keyword (reserve word) dalam bahasa C while, do, if, else, dll
  • Syntax mengatur cara mengkombinasikan kata-kata tersebut ke dalamsuatu statement dengan bentuk yang benar sehingga dapat disusunsuatu program yang dapat berjalan dengan benar
  • Syntax tidak mengerti arti atau isi dari suatu kalimat, semantic yang bisamengartikannya
  • Syntax menyediakan bentuk-bentuk notasi untuk kominikasi antara programmer dan pemroses bahasa pemrograman, sehingga mempermudah pembuatan suatu program
2 Kumpulan Aturan Syntax
Lexical
menspesifikasikan kumpulan karakter yang terdapat dalam alphabet dari bahasa dan cara supaya karakter-karakter tersebut dikombinasikan ke dalam kata-kata yang valid dan diterima
Syntactic
elemen-elemen yang mengatur bentuk suatu statement-statement dalam bahasa pemrograman.
Semantic
  • Mendefinisikan arti dari program yang benar secara syntax dari bahasa tersebut
  • int nilai [10]
  • Semantic akan menentukan deklarasi diatas dan menyebabkan ruang sebanyak 10 elemen integer yang diberikan kepada variabel nilai
  • if (a>b) max = a else max = b;
  • Ekspresi a>b harus dievaluasi terlebih dahulu , tergantung dari nilai ini satu dari dua statement di belakangnya akan dieksekusi
Elemen-elemen Syntactic
• Himpunan Karakter
• ASCII - Karakter angka dan huruf
• Identifier
• Umumnya string dari huruf dan angka
• Simbol untuk operator
• Simbol matematika
• Keyword dan Reserved Word
• Kata-kata milik bahasa, biasanya tidak boleh
digunakan sebagai identifier
Grammar
•Suatu kumpulan aturan (production) yang
menentukan urut-urutan karakter
•Suatu formal grammar adalah grammar biasa
yang ditentukan dengan menggunakan notasi
yang ketat
•Ada dua kelas grammar yang berguna untuk
teknologi compiler
•EBNF Grammar
•Regular Grammar
Grammar is one of the most important parts that we need to master when studying English. Therefore, we - the staff of Englishland -have provided a number of exercises that you can practice in order to communicate, or speak and write using good and correct English sentences. A lot of English learners, especially from basic to pre-intermediate levels complain that English grammar is difficult. As a matter of fact, it is not. If we want to do the exercises of each grammar lesson from basic level and move up to more difficult ones, little by little we will be able to understand the rules and apply them in our daily conversation and written communication. English learners need to be patient and persistent in answering every question that we have added in various grammar lessons or exercises in this website.
In addition to learning various lessons in these web-pages, we encourage students to have grammar books. The followings are the books that we recommend:
1.      English Grammar in Use - A reference and practice book for intermediate students. This book was written by Raymond Murphy. It has been used as a self study guide by millions of students around the world. The book is more suitable for intermediate and more advanced students.
2.      Essential Grammar in Use - A self-study reference and practice book for elementary students of English. This book was also written by Mr. Murphy. If you cannot find these grammar books then there are other books which I can recommend and I hope that they are available at the nearest bookstore in your city
3.      Understanding and Using English Grammar
4.      Basic English Grammar
Books number 3 and 4 were written by Betty Schramper Azar. The former is meant to be used by intermediate through advanced ESL students and the latter is more suitable for beginning English learners. Most of the above exercises have been equipped with answers. After answering the questions, you will immediately know how many correct and wrong answers you have made including your score. We will try to add more grammar lessons in the near future. Besides buying the grammar books, we recommend that each English buy a good dictionary. One that is published by Longman or Oxford University Press. A good dictionary has words whose pronunciations are explained using international phonetic symbols. Although learning English from this Englishland's website can significantly improve your communicative skills, we feel that it is not enough. Therefore we encourage every learner to take course programs provided by various language course institutions both in their cities or from the internet. The minimum level that a learner has to reach is intermediate. After that he can learn by himself using various sources such as having regular conversation with native English speakers in their towns or cities, joining English clubs or watching BBC, VOA and other TV stations that use English in their programs. by Charles Roring
June 21st, 2010 Posted in Pelajaran
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Tense bahasa inggris terakhir ini digunakan untuk mengungkapkan kejadian yang akan sudah sedang terjadi pada masa lalu. Past future perfect continuous tense memiliki persamaan dengan future perfect continuous tense.
Rumus
Positif (+)
Subject + should/would + have + been + verb-ing + object
Negatif (-)
Subject + should/would + not + have + been + verb-ing + object
Tanya (?)
Should/would + subject + have + been + verb-ing + object ?
Contoh – Past Future Perfect Continuous tense :
I would have working in leading companies for 10 years (+)
- Aku akan sudah sedang bekerja di perusahaan ternama selama 10 tahun
I would not have working in leading companies for 10 years (-)
- Aku tidak akan sudah sedang bekerja di perusahaan ternama selama 10 tahun
Would you have working in leading companies for 10 years ? (?)
- apakah kamu akan sudah sedang bekerja di perusahaan ternama selama 10 tahun ?
Berikut latihan Past Future Perfect Continuous tense bahasa inggris. Jika mengalami kesulitan dalam arti kata gunakan kamus bahasa inggris online :
Latihan : terjemahkan kalimat ini kedalam bahasa inggris
1.Sedianya concert itu tengah akan dimulai andaikata artis artis itu datang pada waktunya.
2.Sedianya saya tengah akan tidur andaikata mereka belum datang
3.Andaikata ayah saya telah selesai berbelanja, ibu saya akan memasak makanan itu
© 2010, kursus bahasa inggris cepat. All rights reserved.














Kumpulan 16 Tenses Bahasa Inggris Lengkap

T E N S E S- T E N S E S
Ini merupakan kupulan dari 16
Tenses rumus beserta contohnya
ada di sini..
A. Simple Present Tenses
Walaupun Present artinya
sekarang tetapi hal ini jangan
ditapsirkan bahwa tindakan
tersebut dilakukan pada saat ini.
Tenses ini digunakan untuk
menyatakan sesuatu yang
bersifat tetap, kebiasaan atau
kebenaran yang hakiki. Karena
sering menyangkut kejadian
diwaktu lamapu, sekarang dan
akan datang, Tenses ini paling
sedikit mempunyai keterangan
waktu tertentu.
Kalimat-kalimat bahasa inggris
umumnya harus mempunyai
subject(s) dan predicate(p).
karena itu semua Tenses akan
dipormulasi seperti itu.
Rumus:
+) Subject + to be + verb I + Main
verb
+) Subject + verbI +(s/es)
Contoh :
* he is handsome
(dia tampan)
* is he handsome?
(apakah dia tampan?)
* he is not handsome
(dia tidak tampan)
Simple Present Tense dipakai
ketika:
• Kejadiannya bersifat umum,
atau
•Terjadi sepanjang waktu, atau
kebiasaan di masa lampau,
sekarang dan masa yang akan
datang, atau
•Kejadiannya tidak hanya terjadi
sekarang, atau
•Bersifat kebenaran umum,
yang orang lain tidak dapat
menyangkal lagi akan
kebenarannya.
B. Present Continuous Tense
Tenses ini digunakan untuk
menyatakan suatu tindakan yang
benar-benar sedang dilakukan
saat ini. Kalimat-kalimat dalam
Tenses ini lebih sering dipakai
dari pada present Tenses.
Rumus:
subject + to be (is, am, are) +
kata kerja + ing
Tense ini dipakai untuk
menjelaskan tentang:
•Kejadian yang sedang terjadi
sekarang, atau
•Kejadian yang akan terjadi di
masa yang akan dating
Contoh :
+) She is cooking in the kitchen.
(dia sedang memasak di dapur)
-) She is not cooking in the
kitchen
(dia tidak sedang memasak di
dapur)
?) is she cooking in the kitchen?
(Apakah dia sedang memasak di
dapur?)
C. Present Perfect Tense
Rumus:
subject + have + past participle
(Kata Kerja Bentuk ke-3)
Tense ini digunakan untuk:
•Pengalaman
• Perubahan
• Situasi Yang berkelanjutan
Atau untuk menunjukan suatu
peristiwa yang selesai pada
waktu yang singkat (baru
selesai)
Perhatikan contoh-contoh
kalimatnya berikut ini:
+) they have met me
(mereka sudah menemui saya)
?) have they met me?
(apakah mereka sudah menemui
saya?
-) they have not met me
( mereka belum menemui saya)
D. Present Perfect Continuous
Tense
Rumus:
subject + have / has + been +
K.Kerja + ing
Kita menggunakan Tense ini
untuk menjelaskan:
•Satu kejadian/kegiatan yang
baru saja berlangsung
•Satu perbuatan yang
berlangsung hingga sekarang
(pada saat bicara masih terjadi)
Perhatikan contoh kalimat
berikut:
+) They have been playing
football
(Mereka telah sedang bermain
sepakbola)
-) They have not been playing
football
(merka telah tidak sedang
bermain sepakbola)
?) have they been playing
football?
( Apakah merka telah sedang
bermain sepakbola?)
E. Simple Past Tense
Rumus Kalimat Positif:
subject + Kata Kerja Bentuk ke – 2
Rumus Kalimat Negatif :
subject + did + not + Kata Kerja
Bentuk ke – 1
Rumus Kalimat Tanya:
Did + subject + Kata Kerja Bentuk
ke – 1
Pengecualian: Ketika Predikat
suatu kalimat bukan kata kerja,
maka pengganti kata kerja
tersebut adalah was (I, she, he, it)
dan were (we, you, they).
Kapan kita memakai Simple Past
Tense?
Kita memakai Tense ini untuk
membicarakan tentang satu
perbuatan yang terjadi di masa
lampau.
Perhatikan contoh kalimat
berikut:
+) They were student last year
(mereka pelajar tahun lalu)
-) they were not student last year
(mereka bukan pelajar tahun
lalu)
?) were they student last year?
(apakah mereka pelajar tahun
lalu?)
F. Past Continuous Tense
Rumus:
subject + was, were + Kata Kerja
+ ing
Kapan kita menggunakan Tense
ini?
Tense ini menggambarkan suatu
tindakan atau kejadian pada
waktu tertentu di masa lampau.
Contoh:
+)We were joking.
-) We were not joking
?) Were we joking?
G. Past Perfect Tense
Rumus:
had + subject + Kata Kerja Bentuk
ke – 3
Kapan kita menggunakan Past
Perfect Tense?
Tense ini mengekspresikan
tindakan di masa lalu sebelum
tindakan lain terjadi, namun
kejadiannya di masa lampau.
Perhatikan:
+) I had listen the radio when
you come here
(aku sudah mendengar radio
sebelum kamu datang
H. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Rumus:
subject + had + been + Kata Kerja
+ ing
Kapan Kita menggunakan Past
Perfect Continuous Tense?
Tense ini sama pemakaiannya
dengan Past Perfect Tense,
namun mengekspresikan
tindakan-tindakan yang lebih
lama di masa lampau sebelum
tindakan lain terjadi.
Perhatikan:
She had been helping me when
they went to scool
(dia telah sedang membantu
saya ketika mereka telah pergi ke
sekolah)
I. Simple Future Tense
Rumus:
subject + WILL/SHALL + Kata Kerja
Bentuk I
Kapan kita mengunakan Simple
Future Tense?
a. Tidak Ada Rencana
Sebelumnya atau Menyatakan
perbuatan/kejadian yang akan
dilakukan pada waktu yang akan
datang
contoh :
• Hold on. I‘ll get a pen.
b. Prediksi
Contoh:
•It will rain tomorrow.
KALIMAT NON-VERBAL
Ketika predikat suatu kalimat
bukan kata kerja, maka gunakan
be untuk menggantikan kata
kerja tersebut.
Contoh:
• I‘ll be in London tomorrow.
Catatan:
Ketika kita mempunyai rencana
atau keinginan untuk melakukan
suatu kegiatan di masa yang
akan datang, maka gunakan be
going to atau Present Continuous
Tense untuk menggantikan will/
shall.
J. Future Continuous Tense
Rumus:
subject + WILL + BE + Kata Kerja +
ing
Kapan kita menggunakan Future
Continuous Tense?
Tense ini menggambarkan suatu
tindakan yang akan terjadi di
waktu tertentu di masa yang
akan datang.
Contoh:
He will be teaching me at eight
tomorrow
(dia akan sedang mengajar saya
pada jam delapan besok)
K. Future Perfect Tense
Rumus:
subject + WILL + HAVE + Kata
Kerja Bentuk ke 3
Kapan Kita Menggunakan Future
Perfect Tense?
Tense ini kita pakai untuk
menggambarkan suatu kegiatan
yang akan terjadi di masa yang
akan datang sebelum kegiatan
lain terjadi.
Contoh:
They will be tired when they
arrive.
.(mereka akan telah lelah ketika
mereka datang)
L. Future Perfect Continuous
Tense
Rumus:
Subject + WILL + HAVE + BEEN +
Kata Kerja I + ing
Kapan kita memakai Future
Perfect Continuous Tense?
Kita menggunakan Tense ini
untuk membicarakan tentang
suatu tindakan/kegiatan yang
panjang sebelum beberapa saat
di masa yang akan datang.
Contoh:
•He will be tired when he
arrives. He will have been
traveling for 24 hours.
M. Past Future Tense
Untuk menyatakan suatu
perbuatan/peristiwa yang akan
terjadi diwaktu lampau
Rumus:
subject + WOULD + Kata Kerja
Bentuk I
Contoh :
She would not be at school
tomorrow.
(Dia tidak akan ke sekolah besok)
N. Past Future Continuous Tense
Untuk menyatakan suatu
perbuatan yang sedang terjadi di
waktu lampau.
Rumus:
subject + WOULD + BE + Kata
Kerja + ing
Contoh:
We would be having dinner at
home yesterday.
(kita akan sedang makan malam
di rumah kemarin)
O. Past Future Perfect Tense
untuk menyatakan suatu
prbuatan atau peristiwa yang
akan sedang terjadi di waktu
lampau
Rumus:
subject + WOULD + HAVE + Kata
Kerja Bentuk ke 3
Contoh:
she would have be finished to
studied if he had not been lazy
(dia akan sudah tamat belajar
jika dia tidak malas)
P. Past Future Perfect Continuous
Tense
Untuk menyatakan suatu
perbuatan/peristiwa yang akan
sedang terjadi di waktu lampau
Rumus:
Subject + WOULD + HAVE + BEEN
+ Kata Kerja I + ing
Contoh:
We would have been waiting
long.
(kita akan sudah sedang
menunggu lama)
KESIMPULAN
Rumus Umum Tense adalah sbb:
No Tenses Rumus
1 Present Simple Tense S + V1 +
dll
2 Present Continuous Tense S +
is, am, are + V-ing + dll
3 Present Perfect Tense S +
have,has + V3 + dll
4 Present Perfect Continuous
Tense S + have, has + been + V-
ing + dll
5 Past Simple Tense S + V2 + dll
6 Past Continuous Tense S + was,
were + V-ing + dll
7 Past Perfect Tense S + had + V3
+ dll
8 Past Perfect Continuous Tense S
+ had + been + V-ing + dll
9 Future Simple Tense S + will +
V1 + dll
10 Future Continuous Tense S +
will + be + V-ing + dll
11 Future Perfect Tense S + will +
have + V3 + dll
12 Future Perfect Continuous
Tense S + will + have + been + V-
ing + dll
13 Past Future Simple Tense S +
would + V1 + dll
14 Past Future Continuous Tense
S + would + be + V-ing + dll
15 Past Future Perfect Tense S +
would + have + V3 + dll
16 Past Future Perfect
Continuous Tense S + would +
have + been + V-ing + dll


Kumpulan 16 tenses

T E N S E S- T E N S E S
Ini merupakan kupulan dari 16 Tenses rumus beserta contohnya ada di sini..
A. Simple Present Tenses
Walaupun Present artinya sekarang tetapi hal ini jangan ditapsirkan bahwa tindakan tersebut dilakukan pada saat ini. Tenses ini digunakan untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang bersifat tetap, kebiasaan atau kebenaran yang hakiki. Karena sering menyangkut kejadian diwaktu lamapu, sekarang dan akan datang, Tenses ini paling sedikit mempunyai keterangan waktu tertentu.

Kalimat-kalimat bahasa inggris umumnya harus mempunyai subject(s) dan predicate(p). karena itu semua Tenses akan dipormulasi seperti itu.
Rumus:
+) Subject + to be + verb I + Main verb
+) Subject + verbI +(s/es)
Contoh :
* he is handsome
(dia tampan)
* is he handsome?
(apakah dia tampan?)
* he is not handsome
(dia tidak tampan)
Simple Present Tense dipakai ketika:
• Kejadiannya bersifat umum, atau
• Terjadi sepanjang waktu, atau kebiasaan di masa lampau, sekarang dan masa yang akan datang, atau
• Kejadiannya tidak hanya terjadi sekarang, atau
• Bersifat kebenaran umum, yang orang lain tidak dapat menyangkal lagi akan kebenarannya.

B. Present Continuous Tense
Tenses ini digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu tindakan yang benar-benar sedang dilakukan saat ini. Kalimat-kalimat dalam Tenses ini lebih sering dipakai dari pada present Tenses.

Rumus:
subject + to be (is, am, are) + kata kerja + ing
Tense ini dipakai untuk menjelaskan tentang:
• Kejadian yang sedang terjadi sekarang, atau
• Kejadian yang akan terjadi di masa yang akan dating
Contoh :
+) She is cooking in the kitchen.
(dia sedang memasak di dapur)
-) She is not cooking in the kitchen
(dia tidak sedang memasak di dapur)
?) is she cooking in the kitchen?
(Apakah dia sedang memasak di dapur?)
C. Present Perfect Tense

Rumus:
subject + have + past participle (Kata Kerja Bentuk ke-3)
Tense ini digunakan untuk:
• Pengalaman
• Perubahan
• Situasi Yang berkelanjutan
Atau untuk menunjukan suatu peristiwa yang selesai pada waktu yang singkat (baru selesai)

Perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimatnya berikut ini:
+) they have met me
(mereka sudah menemui saya)
?) have they met me?
(apakah mereka sudah menemui saya?
-) they have not met me
( mereka belum menemui saya)

D. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Rumus:
subject + have / has + been + K.Kerja + ing
Kita menggunakan Tense ini untuk menjelaskan:
• Satu kejadian/kegiatan yang baru saja berlangsung
• Satu perbuatan yang berlangsung hingga sekarang (pada saat bicara masih terjadi)

Perhatikan contoh kalimat berikut:
+) They have been playing football
(Mereka telah sedang bermain sepakbola)
-) They have not been playing football
(merka telah tidak sedang bermain sepakbola)
?) have they been playing football?
( Apakah merka telah sedang bermain sepakbola?)

E. Simple Past Tense
Rumus Kalimat Positif:
subject + Kata Kerja Bentuk ke - 2
Rumus Kalimat Negatif :
subject + did + not + Kata Kerja Bentuk ke - 1
Rumus Kalimat Tanya:
Did + subject + Kata Kerja Bentuk ke - 1
Pengecualian: Ketika Predikat suatu kalimat bukan kata kerja, maka pengganti kata kerja tersebut adalah was (I, she, he, it) dan were (we, you, they).

Kapan kita memakai Simple Past Tense?
Kita memakai Tense ini untuk membicarakan tentang satu perbuatan yang terjadi di masa lampau.
Perhatikan contoh kalimat berikut:
+) They were student last year
(mereka pelajar tahun lalu)
-) they were not student last year
(mereka bukan pelajar tahun lalu)
?) were they student last year?
(apakah mereka pelajar tahun lalu?)

F. Past Continuous Tense
Rumus:
subject + was, were + Kata Kerja + ing
Kapan kita menggunakan Tense ini?
Tense ini menggambarkan suatu tindakan atau kejadian pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau.
Contoh:
+)We were joking.
-) We were not joking
?) Were we joking?

G. Past Perfect Tense
Rumus:
had + subject + Kata Kerja Bentuk ke - 3
Kapan kita menggunakan Past Perfect Tense?
Tense ini mengekspresikan tindakan di masa lalu sebelum tindakan lain terjadi, namun kejadiannya di masa lampau.

Perhatikan:
+) I had listen the radio when you come here
(aku sudah mendengar radio sebelum kamu datang

H. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Rumus:
subject + had + been + Kata Kerja + ing
Kapan Kita menggunakan Past Perfect Continuous Tense?
Tense ini sama pemakaiannya dengan Past Perfect Tense, namun mengekspresikan tindakan-tindakan yang lebih lama di masa lampau sebelum tindakan lain terjadi.

Perhatikan:
She had been helping me when they went to scool
(dia telah sedang membantu saya ketika mereka telah pergi ke sekolah)

I. Simple Future Tense
Rumus:
subject + WILL/SHALL + Kata Kerja Bentuk I
Kapan kita mengunakan Simple Future Tense?
a. Tidak Ada Rencana Sebelumnya atau Menyatakan perbuatan/kejadian yang akan dilakukan pada waktu yang akan datang
contoh :
• Hold on. I‘ll get a pen.
b. Prediksi
Contoh:
• It will rain tomorrow.
KALIMAT NON-VERBAL
Ketika predikat suatu kalimat bukan kata kerja, maka gunakan be untuk menggantikan kata kerja tersebut.
Contoh:
• I‘ll be in London tomorrow.

Catatan:
Ketika kita mempunyai rencana atau keinginan untuk melakukan suatu kegiatan di masa yang akan datang, maka gunakan be going to atau Present Continuous Tense untuk menggantikan will/shall.

J. Future Continuous Tense
Rumus:
subject + WILL + BE + Kata Kerja + ing
Kapan kita menggunakan Future Continuous Tense?
Tense ini menggambarkan suatu tindakan yang akan terjadi di waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang.
Contoh:
He will be teaching me at eight tomorrow
(dia akan sedang mengajar saya pada jam delapan besok)


K. Future Perfect Tense
Rumus:
subject + WILL + HAVE + Kata Kerja Bentuk ke 3
Kapan Kita Menggunakan Future Perfect Tense?
Tense ini kita pakai untuk menggambarkan suatu kegiatan yang akan terjadi di masa yang akan datang sebelum kegiatan lain terjadi.
Contoh:
They will be tired when they arrive.
.(mereka akan telah lelah ketika mereka datang)


L. Future Perfect Continuous Tense
Rumus:
Subject + WILL + HAVE + BEEN + Kata Kerja I + ing
Kapan kita memakai Future Perfect Continuous Tense?
Kita menggunakan Tense ini untuk membicarakan tentang suatu tindakan/kegiatan yang panjang sebelum beberapa saat di masa yang akan datang. Contoh:
• He will be tired when he arrives. He will have been traveling for 24 hours.


M. Past Future Tense
Untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan/peristiwa yang akan terjadi diwaktu lampau
Rumus:
subject + WOULD + Kata Kerja Bentuk I
Contoh :
She would not be at school tomorrow.
(Dia tidak akan ke sekolah besok)

N. Past Future Continuous Tense
Untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang sedang terjadi di waktu lampau.
Rumus:
subject + WOULD + BE + Kata Kerja + ing
Contoh:
We would be having dinner at home yesterday.
(kita akan sedang makan malam di rumah kemarin)


O. Past Future Perfect Tense
untuk menyatakan suatu prbuatan atau peristiwa yang akan sedang terjadi di waktu lampau
Rumus:
subject + WOULD + HAVE + Kata Kerja Bentuk ke 3
Contoh:
she would have be finished to studied if he had not been lazy
(dia akan sudah tamat belajar jika dia tidak malas)


P. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense
Untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan/peristiwa yang akan sedang terjadi di waktu lampau
Rumus:
Subject + WOULD + HAVE + BEEN + Kata Kerja I + ing
Contoh:
We would have been waiting long.
(kita akan sudah sedang menunggu lama)

KESIMPULAN
Rumus Umum Tense adalah sbb:
No Tenses Rumus
1 Present Simple Tense S + V1 + dll
2 Present Continuous Tense S + is, am, are + V-ing + dll
3 Present Perfect Tense S + have,has + V3 + dll
4 Present Perfect Continuous Tense S + have, has + been + V-ing + dll
5 Past Simple Tense S + V2 + dll
6 Past Continuous Tense S + was, were + V-ing + dll
7 Past Perfect Tense S + had + V3 + dll
8 Past Perfect Continuous Tense S + had + been + V-ing + dll
9 Future Simple Tense S + will + V1 + dll
10 Future Continuous Tense S + will + be + V-ing + dll
11 Future Perfect Tense S + will + have + V3 + dll
12 Future Perfect Continuous Tense S + will + have + been + V-ing + dll
13 Past Future Simple Tense S + would + V1 + dll
14 Past Future Continuous Tense S + would + be + V-ing + dll
15 Past Future Perfect Tense S + would + have + V3 + dll
16 Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense S + would + have + been + V-ing







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